News & Op/Eds

sudantribune.com/spip.php?art… In the meantime, a lot is happening to "change" the crime scene. fb.me/4pgVuqzK3

Last week from GC2PG's Twitter via Facebook

Atrocity Prevention at the Crossroads: Assessing the President’s Atrocity Prevention Board After Two Years                                                            September 15, 2014; USHMM                                                                                            The Atrocity Prevention Board (APB) is an interagency body that was created by President Obama in 2012. It was established to identify and address threats of mass atrocity. This report assesses the actions and efforts made thus far, while highlighting it’s challenges and providing recommendations on ways to make it more effective in mass atrocity prevention.

The Big Lie Americans Tell Themselves                                                          August 9, 2014; Foreign Policy Magazine 

Samantha Power on South Sudan                                                                          The deterioration of what has devolved into an ethnic conflict, four million people are now faced with a man- made famine. Not enough countries have stepped up to contribute humanitarian resources and ensure safe delivery of aid. Not all peacekeepers are doing their job.

Sudan death row woman Miriam Ibrahim detained again                     June 24, 2014; The Guardian

If you are skeptical about how dance can end poverty in post conflict countries then this 1.5 minute video will change your mind.                         YouTube 

Interesting Summer Opportunity for you

For the first time since WWII there are more than 50 million refugees   June 20, 2014; Huffington Post

Why are Rwandans disappearing?                                                                                  June 17, 2014; The New York Times

In Honor of Yom HaShoah                                                                                                April 8, 2013; National Center for Civil and Human Rights Blog

We Speak of the Tyranny of Genocide in Darfur                                                  April 4, 2013; jweekly.com

Forced Organ Harvesting in China-US Congressional Hearing              September 12, 2012; You Tube 

Summary and History of Conflict in South Kordofan/Nuba Mountains                                                                                                                             July 5, 2012; Small Arms Survey Sudan

Statement on Sudan: Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Valerie Amos                         June 28, 2012

Sudan at the Tipping Point: Protests in Khartoum May Portend Regime Change                                                                                                                           June 21, 2012; By Eric Reeves

From Peace Prize to Paralysis                                                                                           June 6, 2012; The New York Times, By Nick Kristof

Desperate Sudanese Flee Bombing in Nuba Mountains                             May 8, 2012;  Offeibea Quist-Arcton, NPR

Besieged in Sudan’s Nuba Mountains -video                                                          The New York Times, By Nick Kristof

In Sudan’s Nuba Mountains Rocket Attacks Spread Fear                            March 13, 2012; The New York Times, By Jeffrey Gettleman

House Representative Barbara Lee Speaks out about violence on Sudan/South Sudan border and HR 4169: Sudan Peace, Security and Accountability Act 2012                                                                                               April 17, 2012  

Georgia Legislature Declares April Genocide Prevention and Awareness Month                                                                                                             March 23, 2012; The Enough Project                                                                 Atlanta Jewish Times                                                                                                             March 30, 2012

This Week in Washington: Clooney Shines a Spotlight on War Crimes in Sudan                                                                                                                                        March 15, 2012; The Enough Project

Just a Few Months Old, South Sudan Already in Turmoil                              January 18, 2012; NPR, by Michele Kelemen                                                          Continued ethnic violence within the new country in addition to ongoing tensions with its previous rulers in Sudan has set up a perfect storm for disaster and humanitarian crises.

White House: South Sudan Eligible to Receive US Defense Assistance
January 6, 2012; VOA 

UN Security Council Meeting on Darfur & the ICC                                        December 15, 2011

GENOCIDE PREVENTION INSTITUTE

The Genocide Prevention Institute will host its inaugural launch on November 6, 2011. The GPI creates awareness, educates, advocates and strives to build a permanent anti-genocide constituency through action steps that will end the preventable events of genocide and mass atrocities. Please like the page on Facebook to receive updates and to find out about upcoming events.

U.N. Security Council Recommends South Sudan as U.N. Member
Reuters, July 13, 2011                                                                                       Following the UNSC recommendation, “the General Assembly is expected to admit the new African country as its 193rd U.N. member on Thursday, [July 14, 2011]”

Rights Activists Warn of Genocide in Sudan                                                            The Washington Times, July 12, 2011

CNN’s Fredricka Whitfield interviews two South Sudanese refugees living in Atlanta on the founding of their new nation. “We need to catch up with civilization and the rest of the world…America has given me a lot but they need me more back home”.  July 11, 2011

In South Sudan, a Nation is Born–But With Troubles
PBS NEWSHOUR Judy Woodruff reports and interviews Rebecca Hamilton. July 11, 2011

Congressman Hank Johnson Speaks on the Floor of the House Regarding Atrocities against the Nuba People                                               July 7, 2011

Congressman Johnson, of Georgia’s Fourth Congressional District, raised much needed attention about the developing crisis in South Kordofan. He noted the the Sudanese military’s use of targeted violence, restriction of press, and disruption of humanitarian and UN activities, before calling for an UN-led war crimes investigation. Watch the short speech here.

Genocide in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan                         sudanreeves.org, June 23, 2011

Oil Interests Tie China to Sudan Leader Bashir, Even as he Faces Genocide Charges                                                                                                  Washington Post, June 22, 2011

 

Senator Johnny Isakson: Fulfilling an Obligation
The Enough Project, June 21, 2011

Mark Hanis, President and Co-Founder of Genocide Intervention Network/Save Darfur Coalition Speaks at Temple Sinai, Atlanta, GA.  May 6, 2011

‘Never Forget’ Doesn’t Mean ‘Never Again’                                                        May 17, 2011 Atlanta Jewish Times and Save Darfur                       “…Mark Hanis and Claude Gatebuke passionately conveyed that ‘Never Forget’ and ‘Never Again’ are more than popular slogans…”

Shareholders of JPMorgan Chase to Vote on Genocide-Free Investing  April 1, 2011, Businesswire

In Sudan, Violence Grows in Darfur as Abyei Arms                                  April 1, 2011, PBS Newshour

Anti-Genocide Group Protest General Gration’s Nomination to Serve as Ambassador to Kenya                                                                             April 1, 2011

GC2PG signs on to a letter to US Senate Foreign Relations Committee that asks the committee members to vote against Special Envoy Gration’s confirmation as US Ambassador to Kenya at April 5th hearing.

UN Security Council approve No-Fly Zone in Libya                             March 17, 2011 CNN

Police respond with violence when inspired by recent popular protests in Tunisia and Egypt, Sudanese youth protest in Khartoum demanding the resignation of the current Bashir regime.

SUDAN POLICE CLASH WITH PROTESTERS
January 30, 2011, Aljazeera

Darfur Peacekeepers in Standoff With Sudan Army: UN              January 27, 2011 AFP

UN Worried About Upsurge of Fighting in Darfur                             Reuters January 25, 2011

GC2PG featured in The Atlanta Jewish Times                                    Speakers against modern-day atrocities, too                                         January 20, 2011

 SATELLITE SENTINEL                                                                                                  Get the latest updates in Sudan from George Clooney by his latest human rights project. It combines satellite imagery analysis and field reports with Google’s Map Maker technology to deter the resumption of war between the North and South Sudan.

Jon Stewart, ‘The Daily Show’ GO TO SUDAN FOR A PICK-ME-UP     January 13, 2011                                                                                                              See what an actual Sudan Referendum ballot looks like and hear Stewart’s highlights on The Sentinel Project, funded by many in Hollywood.

The 60% voter turnout threshold has been passed in the South Sudan Referendum                                                                                                 January 12, 2011                                                                                                        “South Sudan has reached the 60% turnout needed to pass the referendum on secession from the north.” The threshold was agreed upon in the 2005 peace agreement.

Obama pens Op-ed on the South Sudan Referendum                     January 8, 2011                                                                                                                     In a display of support and White House commitment to Sudan, Obama penned an Op-ed in the NY Times in which he commits to supporting the results of the referendum. As the polls opened in South Sudan, Obama writes that a fair referendum is only the starting point for lasting peace in North and South Sudan and that full implementation of the 2005 peace agreement and resolution of remanding contentions between the North and South is necessary. Obama guarantees that if independence is selected “they will have a steady partner in the United States.”

George Clooney and his organization Not on Our Watch announced they will fund the “Satellite Sentinel Project”                                          January 7, 2011                                                                                                          Clooney unveiled a project in conjunction with the U.N’s Operational Satellite Applications Programme, Harvard University, Google, and the Enough Project that will use satellites to collect data in order to monitor violence during the South Sudan secession referendum.

Bashir Vows to Respect Referendum Results
January 4, 2011                                                                                                              While on a trip to South Sudan, Bashir promised to respect the results of the independence referendum and claimed “If the south chooses independence, we will come and congratulate and celebrate with you.” Nevertheless, Bashir maintained his support of a unified north and south.

Sen. Con. Res. 71 – “The Genocide Prevention Resolution” unanimously passes full Senate with 21 bipartisan co-sponsors
December 23, 2010

Sen. Con. Res. 71 recognizes “the United States national interest in helping to prevent and mitigate acts of genocide and other mass atrocities against civilians, and [supports and encourages] efforts to develop a whole of government approach to prevent and mitigate such acts.”

Dane Smith appointed “Darfur Diplomat”
December 13, 2010                                                                                      Ambassador Dane Smith of American University was appointed to serve in the newly created position of “Darfur Diplomat.” Ambassador Smith has previously served as the Deputy Chief of Mission in Sudan (1986-1989) among various other positions on African policy.

Senior Administration Officials on Developments in Sudan
November 8, 2010

George Clooney and John Prendergast Draw Media Attention to Sudan
October 14, 2010                                                                                                      George Clooney and John Prendergast were given the entire hour of the Larry King Live show to discuss the situation in Sudan. The event brought much needed media attention to the upcoming referendum and the reasons that the U.S. must focus on it.

Chronicle of a Genocide Foretold
Nicholas D. Kristof
September 29, 2010

Ambassador Princeton N. Lyman to Lead Sudan Negotiation Support Unit
August 25, 2010
US Dept. of State

Allegations of Mass Rape in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
US Dept. of State August 25, 2010

Obama’s Rwanda Moment
August 20, 2010 You Tube Video

Obama’s Sudan Envoy, General Gration, Contemplates Kenya Post
Josh Rogin, Foreign Policy
August 13, 2010

Burmese Junta sets Election Date, November 7th
The Economist
August 13, 2010

Sudan at Crossroads: U.S. Must Engage For Sustainable Peace (H.R. 1588)
Enough Project
August 09, 2010

Genocide Prevention Resolution (S.CON.RES.71.IS) Text
Library of Congress
August 5, 2010

BREAKING NEWS:
BIPARTISAN GENOCIDE PREVENTION RESOLUTION INTRODUCED
August 5, 2010
Senators Russ Feingold (D-WI) and Susan Collins (R-ME) introduced a resolution recognizing the US national interest in helping to prevent and mitigate acts of genocide and other mass atrocities against civilians, and supporting and encouraging efforts to develop a whole of government approach to prevent and mitigate such acts. To read the full text of this resolution click here:


Genocide prevention resolution – as introduced on 8 5 10 (3).pdf

 

To see how you can help facilitate the passage of this resolution click here to
TAKE ACTION in Georgia

CPA Partners Agree To Hold Referendum As Scheduled Despite Border Disagreements
August 4, 2010

African Union Summit reaches agreement to support Sudan despite the outcome of the referendum on January 9, 2011
July 28, 201- Sudan Radio News Service

Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice on the situation in Darfur
U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations
July 27, 2010

Bashir not to attend AU Summit
July 24, 2010

Secretary Clinton’s Remarks on Conflict Minerals in the Democratic Republic of Congo
July 22, 2010; U.S. Department of State

Visit By Sudan’s Bashir Puts Heat on CHAD, an ICC signatory
July 22, 2010

Two Days After ICC Genocide Warrant, Aid Workers Expelled from Darfur
July 18, 2010

Sudanese Army Kills 300 JEM Rebel Forces In Darfur Days After The International Criminal Court (ICC) Issued An Arrest Warrant For President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir For Orchestrating Genocide In Darfur
July 17, 2010

Now End this Darfur Denial                                                                                     July 14,2010; The Guardian UK                                                                          Louis Moreno Ocampo, Chief Prosecutor, International Criminal Court                                                                                                                                        “We have laid charges for genocide. The UN must seize the moment to act for the victims of Sudan.”

Second Arrest Warrant for the Sitting President of Sudan               July 12, 2010, Washington, D.C.                                                                         Rights Groups Respond to the New Genocide Arrest Warrant for President Bashir of Sudan

The International Community Must Bring Bashir and Other Indictees to Justice and Prevent Violent Retaliation by Bashir Regime:

Four human rights advocacy organizations – the Enough Project at the Center for American Progress, Genocide Intervention Network, the Save Darfur Coalition, and the American Jewish World Service – jointly issued the following statement as their response to the new development. The issuance of a second arrest warrant for President Al-Bashir for three counts of genocide requires the international community to fully support the ICC and renew its efforts to apprehend him and all others wanted by the ICC for crimes committed in Darfur. The Government of Sudan should immediately turn over President al-Bashir to face trial in The Hague. Barring this unlikely cooperation, the United States and the international community should work together to ensure Bashir’s swift arrest. After the ICC issued the first warrant for al-Bashir’s arrest in March 2009, President Bashir evicted more than a dozen international aid groups from Sudan, putting thousands of lives at risk. The international community did little to challenge this retaliation, and critically needed services, including aid for survivors of sexual violence, were lost and never replaced in Darfur. President Obama, the UN Security Council, and other world leaders must make it clear to President Bashir that any new retaliation against humanitarian efforts will be met with clear consequences. Sudanese civilians should not be targeted as justice is pursued for those who have died and suffered in Darfur. The Bashir regime’s decades of crimes must end. While risk of a return to full-scale, national war grows and a referendum for southern Sudanese self-determination draws near, the Obama administration should put in action the consequences and pressures it promised for the lack of measurable progress and continued backsliding on key benchmarks by the Government of Sudan and other parties. The United States also needs to intensify its diplomatic efforts to find a path to peace in Sudan, with support from President Obama and other senior members of his foreign policy team. “Accountability is a fundamental component of sustainable peace in Sudan,” says John Prendergast, Co-Founder of the Enough Project. “President Obama should make abundantly clear his unequivocal support for peace rooted in justice in Sudan by sending the message that consequences will result from any retaliation against Sudanese civilians as a result of this warrant, and by building stronger international support for this warrant.” “The American people are expecting President Obama to fulfill his campaign promises and forcefully support the ICC and protect civilians in Sudan,” says Mark Hanis, President of the Genocide Intervention Network. “The United States government should reaffirm its support for the ICC’s pursuit of justice in Darfur and should work together with UN Security Council and ICC member states to ensure the swift enforcement of this and all ICC arrest warrants for those accused of atrocities in Darfur, including al-Bashir.” “The United States and broader international community must vigilantly monitor for any threats or acts of violence or other repression against civilians, Sudanese human rights activists, aid workers or peacekeepers,” says Mark Lotwis, Acting President of the Save Darfur Coalition. “While pushing for al-Bashir’s apprehension, the Obama administration must lead efforts to prevent a repeat of the merciless and cruel retaliation by the Khartoum regime last year.” “Today’s decision comes at a perilous time for the Sudanese people,” said American Jewish World Service (AJWS) president Ruth Messinger. “The Obama administration’s vigilance in implementing the accountability mechanisms central to its Sudan policy is critical to ensure this decision is not used as a pretext to punish civilians and interrupt life-saving aid.”

Pre-Trial Chamber I issues a second warrant of arrest against Omar Al Bashir for 3 counts of genocide                                                                                  July 12, 2010
*Remember what happened after the ICC issued the first arrest warrant in March of 2009? President Bashir expelled more than a dozen international aid groups from Sudan. Little challenge was met by this action from the international community.

United States Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Arrives in Juba for an Official Visit
June 25, 2010; Sudan Radio News
[Johnnie Carson] “We are here to look at the facilities and operations of the consulate here in Juba with the intent to determine what kind of facilities we would need for a diplomatic establishment here in the future. I’m also here to talk with the leadership of the Government of Southern Sudan. We are very much interested in hearing from them about the preparations that they are making for the referendum which is to take place here in January 2011.”

Interview with Special Adviser Francis Deng regarding the situation in Kyrgyzstan
June 22, 2010

Sudan: Basketball Star Manute Bol Dies
June 21, 2010

Sudan: UNAMID Peacekeepers Killed in West Darfur
June 21, 2010

The Politics of Humanitarian Aid to Darfur 
June 19, 2010; By Eric Reeves

The US Holocaust Museum’s “Voices on Genocide Prevention ” speaker series presents:                                                                                     SUDAN: Between Elections and Referendum June 17, 2010

How the Obama Administration is reengaging with the International Criminal Court May 27, 2010

The Aftermath of Sudan’s Elections: Last shot in the dark                    May 19, 2010; Sudan Tribune 

State Department Document:
Sudan – Recent Offensive Actions in Darfur

A Wager on Sudan
May 2, 2010; Washington Post

Rights Groups Condemn Sudanese National Election Conditions
April 12, 2010; VOA News

Obama’s Sudan Fumble
April 14, 2010; Foreign Policy                                                                                     By John Norris, How the U.S. President is bungling Sudan’s elections-and it will come back to haunt him later.

The Last Survivor: Plant a Seed…Expect a Tree (film)
April 12, 2010; Dallas Daily News                                                                                A Dallas Film Festival HIT, by Bridgette Poe.

Rights Groups Condemn Sudanese National Election Campaigns 
April 12, 2010; By Joe DeCapua, Voice of America

Draft framework agreement signed in the Chadian capital of N’Djamena 2/23 between the Government of Sudan and the Justice and Equality Movement leadership. Final version of a deal that sets out the terms of their forthcoming negotiations over peace in Darfur. Enough Project

Darfur Rebels Welcome ICC Ruling
February 3, 2010; Reuters

Darfur Refugees Need Water
January 28, 2010; Reuters

Repression Undermines Sudan Elections
January 24, 2010; Reuters

Rumble in the Junta
January 28, 2010; Foreign Policy

The Cry of a Sudanese Son                                                                                          By Mohamed Bashir

“Allahu musta’an.” Mohamed Yahya, a refugee from Darfur and a human rights activist, looked at me with dark eyes. “It means, ‘God alone will help us.’ It is what the people are now saying in Darfur.”

Mr. Yahya, whose village was destroyed in a government-backed militia attack, is trying to educate the world about the genocide occurring in his home of Darfur, in the western region of Sudan. On this evening, he is talking with a group of students at Duke University, which I attend, about his country’s struggles. Of all the people present that night, only one other person is Sudanese: me.

I learned about the genocide in Darfur, where up to 400,000 people have been killed and more than 2.5 million have been displaced from their homes, the same way everyone else did: from the news. My parents, both from central Sudan, had become so disillusioned with the Sudanese regime that they rarely discussed politics. Our family watched the Sudanese news stations, but the news is controlled by the government, so Darfur is rarely mentioned. When it is, President Omar al-Bashir, who was just indicted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes, is made out to be the hero. During my high school years, I found out what was really happening in Darfur by reading stories on the Internet.

The reality of the situation is staggering: Arab militias called the “Janjaweed” have attacked Darfuri villages, killing women and children, in an ethnic cleansing campaign that continues to this day.

As a Sudanese Arab, I found it almost impossible to believe that my people are capable of such acts of cruelty and malice. But I have come face to face with people from Darfur and other regions of Sudan who have been victims of the government’s brutal policies, and the truth is undeniable.

I have met with photographers who have shown me evocative pictures of blasted villages and broken lives. I have met with Mr. Yahya. I have heard from the Lost Boys of Sudan, innocent victims of a previous war in Sudan that pit the Muslim government against the predominantly Christian south of the country. The Lost Boys risked their lives to escape the all-consuming warfare that had convulsed the region.

I am especially shocked by this violence because I am so familiar with the kind and gentle spirit of the Sudanese people. In my visits to see my family in Sudan, I have seen unemployment and poverty. But even in the midst of this economic trouble, complete strangers would offer me the food off their plates. Generosity is more than a character trait in Sudan: it is a way of life. During meals, extra food is always prepared, in case an unexpected guest arrives. Sudanese people do not hesitate to offer you all they have. To break this precept is to go against everything that makes us who we are.

That’s why the news about the current genocidal campaign by Sudan’s government against the people of Darfur, and previous wars that have targeted others in the south of the country, leaves me more than shocked; I am heartbroken. My heart aches, knowing that the people I love and admire, my own people, are engaged in destroying their brothers. When we lash out at other human beings, we dehumanize ourselves.

But I also know that the true values of Sudanese culture are peace and generosity, and that what makes us Sudanese is also what requires us to cry out against this genocide.

Omar al-Bashir and his government insist on fomenting ethnic conflict in order to keep their hold on power; without political change, the situation of the people in Sudan will not improve.

But I have hope for the future: There are so many Sudanese here in the United States, and in other countries, who are committed to going back to Sudan to use their skills to help our country. I myself cannot stand by and watch as Sudanese kill other Sudanese; I hold my people to a higher standard than that. We cannot do it alone; we will need a lot of help from the world. But I am a son of Sudan, and I tell you that I am up to the challenge: together, we can exert the pressure needed to get Sudan’s government to stop the genocide, end the conflict and help the people of Sudan.

Mohamed Bashir is a senior at Duke University where he is studying biomedical engineering.

Sudan: Preventing Implosion
17 December 2009
Overview
Sudan is sliding towards violent breakup. The main mechanisms to end conflicts between the central government and the peripheries – the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), the Darfur Peace Agreement and the East Sudan Peace Agreement – all suffer from lack of implementation, largely due to the intransigence of the National Congress Party (NCP). Less than thirteen months remain to ensure that national elections and the South Sudan self-determination referendum lead to democratic transformation and resolution of all the country’s conflicts. Unless the international community, notably the U.S., the UN, the AfricanUnion (AU) Peace and Security Council, and the Horn of Africa Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD), cooperate to support both CPA implementation and vital additional negotiations, return to North-South war and escalation of conflict in Darfur are likely.

Save Darfur Coalition Asks G-20 Not to Forgive Sudan’s Debt         Group launches Ad Campaign in Pittsburgh                                              September 24, 2009, Pittsburgh, PA                                                                            The Save Darfur Coalition is running TV and print ads in Pittsburgh this week targeting the heads of state of the 20 richest countries and asking them to not forgive Sudan’s international debt. The ads are part of a larger campaign that started in New York during the height of United Nations General Assembly. To view the 30 second ad onYouTube click here.

Why Sudan’s Debt Should Not Be Forgiven

Seminary Leader Appointed to African Union
August 20, 2009; AJC

Sudan Advocacy Groups, In Letter to Obama Seek Policy Changes 
September 9, 2009

She Wears the Pants                                                                                         September 8, 2009; Foreign Policy Magazine                                               Lubna Hussein, the Sudanese woman found guilty of the crime of wearing trousers, may not have won her case, but she has done one important thing: made the Khartoum regime fear the world’s response.

Ask The Expert- Sudan Policy Review                                                               September 2, 2009                                                                                                           John Prendergrast, Co-founder of the Enough Project, speaks out in this YouTube video.

CNN Commentary: Were Darfur promises for real?
By Dave Eggers and John Prendergast                                                                  Story Highlights Authors: Obama, Clinton, Biden were champions of Darfur movement. They say a broad-based, anti-genocide movement was built. They say the Obama administration hasn’t followed through with a strong policy. They say Obama has a chance to set a strong precedent for dealing with genocide document.

Head of Save Darfur Coalition Refutes Al-Bashir
August 2009

Sudan’s Al-Bashir Responds to ICC Charges
August 2009

Envoy Scott Gration’s Testimony at the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Meeting
July 30, 2009; All Africa.com

A Sudan Policy Review with Life or Death Implications
July 30, 2009; Huffington Post                                                                                        by John Prendergast (Chair, ENOUGH Project)

Sudanese Accept Oil-Border Ruling
July 22, 2009; BBC News

Secretary-General deeply concerned about the violence in West Darfur
July 21, 2009; Darfur Daily Blog

Sudan Sentences 12 Darfur Rebels to Death
June 9, 2009; Reuters 

Nicholas Kristof Podcast | New York Books
Nicholas Kristof speaks with Sasha Weiss about his experiences reporting in Darfur, the International Criminal Court’s indictment of Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, and what the Obama administration can do to prevent further escalation of the conflict.

Sudan May Delay February Elections Again
June 11, 2009; Reuters

Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
TIMISOARA, Romania, December 17, 2008 (UNHCR) – After an incredible journey fraught with danger and hardship, a group of 97 Sudanese refugees from Darfur arrived in Romania Wednesday en route to a new life after years stuck in a desert camp in Iraq.

The Sudanese, most of whom fled Darfur in the late 1980s, arrived in the Romanian city of Timisoara after being flown by UNHCR from the Jordanian capital, Amman. They had earlier been taken by road from the makeshift K-70 camp in Iraq.

Once in Romania, the group was transported in four buses to a new Emergency Transit Centre set up by the Romanian government, UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for people – like them – in urgent need of international protection.

“Our lives had been suspended while we were in Iraq,” one of the refugees told a UNHCR staff member in Timisoara. “But this is a new beginning for us.”

The refugees will stay in Timisoara until their applications for resettlement in other countries are processed. This first group will be followed by another 42 Sudanese refugees, who are expected to leave Iraq next month.

“The refugees are keen to get on with their lives. The children are playing football in the centre’s courtyard,” said Kahin Ismail, a UNHCR protection officer in Iraq, who accompanied them on the plane to Timisoara.

In Iraq, the refugees suffered abuse, blackmail, eviction and assault by militias following the 2003 downfall of the Saddam Hussein regime. A total of 17 Sudanese were killed between December 2004 and February 2005.

Because of this targeting, the refugees tried to flee Iraq but became stranded in the Al Anbar desert in the K-70 camp outside Al Rutbah town, some 75 km east of the Jordan-Iraq border. Conditions in the camp were described by UNHCR staff as “very harsh.” The refugees lived in tents and endured desert sandstorms, soaring daytime temperatures and freezing weather at night.

“This is one of the most vulnerable groups of refugees in Iraq,” UNHCR’s Ismail said. There are some 42,000 refugees from various nationalities registered by UNHCR in Iraq.

Since the group departed Sudan, conditions in Darfur have deteriorated. The refugees said they did not want to go back to Darfur because they feared that they would end up being displaced.

The Emergency Transit Centre in Timisoara is the first of its kind in Europe. It can accommodate up to 200 people and will provide a temporary safe haven for individuals or groups who need to be evacuated immediately from life-threatening situations before being resettled to other countries.

Isakson Reports Progress in War-Torn Darfur
June 15, 2009; AJC 

UN: Sudan Letting Some Aid Groups Return
June 11, 2009; CNN

U.S. Funds Face Renewed Divestment Calls on Sudan
June 2, 2009; Reuters

Statement on the Nomination of Eric Schwartz as Assistant Secretary of State for PRM
June 2, 2009; Refugees International

Darfur Displaced Complain of International Indifference
June 1, 2009; Sudan Tribune

Scientific Study Confirms Darfur Rape Epidemic
June 1, 2009; One World 

Women Fleeing Darfur Reportedly Face Rape, Sexual Assault
May 31, 2009; VOA News

YouTube Video: Darfur Rally in front of the White House
May 31, 2009

Sudan Watch: Peacekeepers’ Day ’09
May 29, 2009

Genocide Step
May 21, 2009; The New Republic 

UNAMID Chief Discusses Darfur Fight with Ex-Rebel Leader
May 20, 2009; Sudan Tribune

Three Organizations Urge Darfur Rebel Movements to Join Peace Process                                                                                                                                   May 19, 2009; China News

Friction Between Chad and Sudan and New Violence in Darfur Worry UN
May 19, 2009; Maxims News 

Sudan Accuses Chad of Sending Troops to Aid Rebels
May 18, 2009; Reuters

Darfur Rebel Appears Before ICC
May 18, 2009; BBC 

Rebel Commander Defiant Over Sudan War Crimes Hearing
May 18, 2009; CNN

Chad Pulls Troops Out of Sudan
May 17, 2009; CNN

GOVERNOR PERDUE SIGNS
SB170 INTO LAW
APRIL 29, 2009

Congressman John Lewis Arrested in Front of Sudanese Embassy April 27, 2009

For up to the minute NEWS, OPINIONS, PRESS RELEASES and DOCUMENTS on the War in Darfur click here.

War Crime Charges Don’t Deter Sudan Leader From Ethiopia Trip
April 21, 2009; CNN

Kerry Offers Details on Sudan Aid Deal
April 20, 2009; NPR 

Expulsion of Aid Groups Raises Risks in Darfur
March 23, 2009                                                                                                                     By Lynsey Addario and Lydia Polgreen

Obama chooses Sudan envoy, to announce Wednesday
March 17, 2009; Reuters

DUACG EFFORTS PAY OFF!!
February 25, 2009                                                                                                       Senator Isaakson sends a letter to President Obama

March 17, 2009                                                                                                                   The Senate sends a letter to the Chinese Ambassador to the United States

Watching Darfuris Die
March 7, 2009; By Nicholas D. Kristof

Point and Counterpoint: Sudan’s Expulsion of Aid Groups Escalates Crisis
March 6, 2009                                                                                                                   Read and listen to UN Ambassador Susan Rice and Alex de Waal, program director with the Social Science Research Council and author of Darfur: A New History of a Long War, comment on the Government of Sudan’s reaction to the ICC arrest warrant.

The TNR Roundtable: What Should Obama Do About Darfur?
March 5, 2009; by Alex de Waal, Richard Just, Eric Reeves, Elizabeth Rubin, and Alan Wolfe

Bashir Defies War Crime Arrest Order                                                                March 5, 2009; By Neil MacFarquhar and Marlise Simons        

The ICC Indictment of Bashir: A turning point for Sudan?
March 4, 2009; ICG 

Sudan orders aid agency expulsions
March 4, 2009; CNN

ICC issues arrest warrant for Sudan’s President
March 4, 2009; YouTube 

The Obama Administration’s First 50 Days: No One at the Helm for Sudan?

March 10, 2009 will mark President Obama’s 50th day in office. After taking office on January 20, the Obama Administration has not taken the important first step of appointing a Special Envoy for Sudan. This inaction is unacceptable from a President and Secretary of State who pledged “unstinting resolve” in working to end genocide in Darfur.

Envoys have already been appointed and are working on Afghanistan-Pakistan, the Middle East, North Korea and climate change. Sudan is no less important and deserves its own high-level envoy. President Obama needs to send a clear signal to the Khartoum regime that Sudan is a priority and appoint someone who can negotiate and preserve a lasting peace.

Meet with your Senators and Representative!
Congress was instrumental in persuading President Bush to appoint a series of envoys for Sudan. Now, Congress is needed to ensure that Sudan remains a priority for President Obama and Secretary of State Clinton by urging the Administration to appoint a high-level Sudan envoy.

Your voice is needed: Call now to schedule a meeting in April Members of Congress are on break from April 6th through the 17th and will be at home in your
district. Call now and ask to schedule a meeting to discuss Sudan and the genocide in Darfur with your Senators and Representative during that week. Once your meeting is scheduled, let us know. We can work with you to develop an agenda, provide updates on the latest information and help by inviting others in your area to attend the meeting with you.

Talking Points for the Meeting
By March 10th, the new Administration will have been in office for 50 days without appointing a
high-level envoy for Sudan. Let your Senator/Representative know that:
Peace Process: Efforts to forge an inclusive peace agreement for Darfur have been ineffective. Further, the implementation of crucial provisions of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement—between north and south Sudan—are at risk. The only way to ensure an end to violence in Darfur and the continued peace between the north and south is if effective peace agreements are adopted and fully implemented.
Violence against Civilians Continues: In Sudan, the first 25 days of the Obama
Administration were marked by an aerial attack in which the government of Sudan
dropped 29 bombs on the village of Muhajiriya in south Darfur.
Justice and Accountability: An indictment of President Bashir by the International
Criminal Court is expected on March 4th and the government of Sudan has threatened to
respond with violence.
Time is Critical:
A high-level envoy for Sudan is needed now.

Have you scheduled your meeting or do you need help scheduling one?
If you need help calling the offices of your elected officials or scheduling a meeting in April,
please email Allyson Neville at Neville@GenocideIntervention.Net or call 202-481-8220 .

Sudan Asks Peacekeepers to Leave a Town                                     February 1, 2009; Associated Press                                                              Sudanese officials asked international peacekeepers on Sunday to leave a rebel-held town in Darfur in advance of a possible military attack, the United Nations and Sudanese officials said.

The request, which represents a challenge to the United Nations’ effort to prevent fighting in Darfur, is the first time the Sudanese have asked international peacekeepers to vacate a specific place in the troubled region.

Josephine Guerrero, a spokeswoman for the United Nations mission, which is known as UNAMID, said the request concerned the town of Muhajiriya in southern Darfur, with a population of about 30,000.

That is where Sudan wants to begin an offensive against rebels from the Justice and Equality Movement, a group that is known to have occasionally received Chadian support and that has held the town since mid-January, said Akuei Bona Malwal, Sudan’s ambassador to the African Union.

He said the Sudanese government was requesting — not demanding — that peacekeepers leave.

“It’s sort of like informing them something will be happening here,” the ambassador said.

Senior officials with the United Nations will meet with Sudanese officials in Khartoum, Sudan’s capital, to discuss the latest request, Ms. Guerrero said. She said the request did not specify when the Sudanese government wanted the peacekeepers to leave the town.

Ms. Guerrero said the peacekeeping force would like to remain in place.

“Our mandate is to provide protection to civilians and we would like to continue doing that,” she said.

Suleiman Sandal, a rebel commander, said his forces were anticipating a government attack on the town and had warned peacekeepers about the possibility.

“We have warned the Unamid,” he said by satellite telephone from Darfur. “We told them it is up to them. We care about their safety.”

Reed Brody, a Brussels-based lawyer with Human Rights Watch who attended an African Union summit meeting in the Ethiopian capital, said that if Unamid complied with the Sudan government’s request, the peacekeeping mission could be weakened.

“The critical test for any decision like this is if it exposes civilians to attack by the government,” he said. “And if it is, it is an undermining to Unamid’s key mandate. Unamid is not there to affect the military balance of power or to take sides, or even to facilitate attacks. They are also not there to protect the rebels or protect the government.”

Rebels took up arms in Sudan’s western Darfur region in 2003. So far, an estimated 300,000 people have died and 2.7 million have been displaced.

Sudanese forces frequently bomb rebel areas in Darfur, despite a United Nations Security Council ban on military flights over the western region.

Genocide Prevention Task Force Releases Report
December 8, 2008 | Press Release

The Genocide Prevention Task Force today released its final report on the eve of the 60th anniversary of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The report makes the case for why genocide and mass atrocities threaten core American values and national interests, and how the U.S. government can prevent these crimes in the future.

Jointly convened by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, The American Academy of Diplomacy, and the United States Institute of Peace, the Task Force began its work last November with the goal of generating concrete recommendations to enhance the U.S. government’s capacity to recognize and respond to emerging threats of genocide and mass atrocities.

“The world agrees that genocide is unacceptable and yet genocide and mass killings continue,” said Madeleine K. Albright, former Secretary of State and Co-Chair of the Genocide Prevention Task Force. “We believe that preventing genocide is possible, and that striving to do so is imperative both for our national interests and our leadership position in the world.”

To learn more please visit Genocide Prevention Task Force Site

Visit this site to view the top 10 stories you may have missed in 2008.

The Enough Project Responds to the ICC Prosecutor’s Recommendations for Darfur War crimes Prosecution                             November 20, 2008                                                                                                              The Enough Project issued the following statement today in response to an announcement by the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. The statement, which follows, is from John Prendergast, Co-chair, John Norris, Executive Director, and Omer Ismail, Policy Advisor:

Today the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, or I.C.C., Luis Moreno-Ocampo, applied for an arrest warrant for war crimes against several members of a splinter rebel faction in Darfur related to the September 29, 2007, attack on African Union peacekeepers in Haskanita. The Chief Prosecutor’s actions are a powerful reminder that the Court will pursue justice with an even hand and follow the chain of evidence with regard to crimes against humanity wherever it leads.

Today’s move by the prosecutor makes clear that repeated claims by the Sudanese government that it is being unfairly targeted by the Court are without merit. Now that government officials, rebels, and militia leaders all have been subject to I.C.C. actions, it is clear that the Court is pursuing its work in a professional and impartial manner. Further, this balanced pursuit of accountability underscores the importance of all sides in the conflict partaking in credible peace talks and forging a lasting solution. While the United Nations Security Council can invoke Article 16 to defer specific cases on a rolling one-year basis, it only should do so in the overwhelming interest of peace. Efforts by parties, including the Sudanese Government, to build support for invoking Article 16 will not be taken seriously until there is a peace to keep in Darfur.

To read the I.C.C. Chief Prosecutor’s statement, click here.

Separately, the Court is still waiting to determine if it will issue an arrest warrant against Sudanese President Omer al-Bashir for charges of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. We believe these charges to have merit, and the issuance of an arrest warrant coupled with a change of administration in Washington can combine to create a transformative opportunity for Darfur. Many governments that had earlier expressed unqualified support for Bashir are backing away quietly, making it increasingly plausible that it will be politically feasible for Bashir to be replaced as president of Sudan if his fellow party members follow the letter of the law in Sudan, hold him accountable for his actions, and push him to the side. An arrest warrant would also present a golden opportunity to use the regime’s desire to suspend these judicial proceedings as leverage not only in forging a peace agreement in Darfur but in getting implementation of the existing North-South peace deal back on track.

The Enough Project, Save Darfur, and the Genocide Intervention Network jointly have called on President-elect Obama and his transition team to develop a new strategy for Sudan, or a peace surge, built around strong diplomacy, improved civilian protection, escalating pressure on the parties to the conflict, and justice. President Obama can help lead an international effort to construct a viable, sustained, high-level peace process that addresses the fundamental issues in Darfur and Sudan more broadly. The time is right also for a concerted multilateral effort to see an indicted Bashir resign the presidency and face extradition to The Hague, which would have a profound effect on the domestic political situation in Sudan. Peace remains possible in Sudan, and today the Chief Prosecutor took an important step in helping the international community fulfill that goal.

National Conference on Darfur, Washington, DC Nov. 7-9             This conference was attended by roughly 800 STAND members representing 45 states and 3 countries. The Adult Activist conference hosted by The Save Darfur Coalition was attended by dozens of adult activists in the Darfur anti genocide community in addition to dozens of Darfuris who are actively involved in assisting the efforts of this tremendous grassroots movement. Many were hopeful that the Obama administration will fulfill his pledges by acting swiftly and decisively on Darfur upon assuming office. Please go to the Save Darfur Coalition web site for a more updated position paper on the specifics of what we should expect from the president elect and his Administration.

Tents of Hope Event on the National Mall where over 300 tents from all over the country were on exhibit before being shipped to the war torn region of Darfur.

A historic US election means moving forward into a new era in race relations and halfway across the world another government continues to move backwards in time by censoring the press.

Press Protest in Sudan                                                                                                    November 4, 2008; Associated Press
KHARTOUM, Sudan – Two Sudanese daily newspapers said Tuesday that they would suspend publication for three days and that their journalists would go on a 24-hour hunger strike to protest state censorship. The journalists said they were resisting a mounting crackdown on freedom of expression ahead of elections expected next year.

Salah Kajam, publisher of the independent Ajras al-Hurria, said state agents regularly removed articles critical of the government and reports of violence in Darfur, among other things.

http://www.nytimes.com

Special Dispatch Series
November 17, 2008
Sudan Liberation Movement Leader Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur Supports Relations with Israel: An Israeli Embassy in Khartoum Will Serve Interests of the Sudanese People
The following are excerpts from an interview with Sudan Liberation Movement leader Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur. The interview aired on Al-Arabiya TV on October 10, 2008.

To view the MEMRI TV clip, visit: http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/1907.htm.

“People from Darfur and Sudan Have Gone to Israel – And They Are There Now, Studying, Eating Israeli Food, and Living… We Will Open an Israeli Embassy in Khartoum”

Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur: “There are two types of normalization. There is normalization between peoples, and this has already happened. People from Darfur and Sudan have gone to Israel, and they are there now, studying, eating Israeli food, and living among them. This has already happened.

“As for political normalization, the Sudan Liberation Movement says loud and clear: If we come to power, we will open an Israeli Embassy in Khartoum and consulates next to the Palestinian Embassy and consulates, because we believe that people should resolve their problems by peaceful means. As for the war between Israel and the Palestinians, we are against the killing of civilians, whether in Israel or in Gaza…”

Interviewer: “But Israel kills Palestinians, and you accept this by your presence there.”

Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur: “Let me finish. We are against the killing of innocent civilians – whether in Israel or the Palestinian territories. But as I previously said, we would open an Israeli Embassy because this would serve the interests of the Sudanese people in terms of politics, industry, agriculture, and investments.” […]

“I Haven’t Seen Any Israeli Who Killed a Sudanese… [But] Our Government Killed Its People by the Hundreds of Thousands”

Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur: “Tell me, how can you compare Sudan to Israel? I haven’t seen any Israeli who killed a Sudanese, or who interfered in Sudanese affairs. In Sudan we have a saying: ‘You see an elephant, but you attack its shadow.’

“Our government killed its people by the hundreds of thousands – sorry, by the millions. In the name of religion and race, it turned tens of thousands of families into refugees with its ‘Public Interest’ system, by means of the Islamic Front, and it killed people during Ramadhan. In the name of development, it drove hundreds of thousands out of their homes everywhere – and then it creates the smokescreen of hatred of Israel.

“Resolve the problems of the Sudanese people first, and then talk about Israel. Start with yourself, and stay away from the problems of others.”

With the Arrest Warrant for Al-Bashir, “The Rule Of Law Has Been Transferred From This Failing, Illegal Government To The ICC”

Interviewer: “Are you pleased about the issuing of the arrest warrant against the Sudanese president? As a Sudanese, do you feel that this is a political victory for you?”

Abd Al-Wahed Al-Nur: “First of all, this is a legal matter, and as a lawyer, I am very pleased that Al-Bashir and his government now know that the world is no longer a jungle of wild beasts, and that it will not allow them to kill their people and remain at large. The issue of the warrant is purely a legal matter. Every nation in the world has the right to protect its citizens and bring them justice.

“In Sudan, we have an outlaw government. Instead of protecting its citizens, it annihilates them. Therefore, the rule of law has been transferred from this failing, illegal government to the International Criminal Court.”
Sudan Advocacy and Action Forum- Situation Update/Bill Andress

SAAF Update 30-2008
November 10, 2008

Topics in this update:

* Sudan’s General Elections
* Southern Sudan: Referendum, self-determination, independence
* Darfur: Humanitarian Access
* South Sudan establishes bureau for civilian disarmament
* UN representative arrested near Merowe Dam, Sudan
* Media Absence – Southern Sudan

Sudan’s General Elections: The Comprehensive Peace Agreement which ended the 21 year war between the Government of Sudan and its Southern citizens requires that Presidential and parliamentary elections on national and state levels must be held before July 2009. Recently, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) Secretary-General Pagan Amum warned that the SPLM would not accept any delay in the date of general elections.

John Ashworth, a long time observer, analyst, and advocate for a just peace in Sudan, notes that the SPLM faces a real dilemma:

* Any attempt to delay the elections will cause suspicion, and will be perceived as playing into the hands of the NCP’s attempts to delay and undermine the implementation of the CPA.
* Alternatively, if the elections take place in July 2009 as planned, there are huge problems. The electoral commission will find it hard to complete its preparations in time, holding elections during the rainy season will mean that many parts of the south will not have proper access to the ballot box, and of course Darfur remains a problem due to security.

Without a great deal of wisdom on the part of the SPLM, this could become a lose-lose proposition. (Sudan Tribune and Personal Correspondence)

Southern Sudan: Referendum, self-determination, independence

While the viewpoints differed, it was clear that South Sudan’s first public lecture held October 29, on preparations for the referendum on self-determination in the year 2011 was welcomed. Politicians, civil servants, SPLA Officers, and international observers, joined Southern Sudan’s President Salva Kiir in discussing the event. Noting that the road to the referendum would be bumpy, Kiir emphasized the absolutely essential need for the referendum.

“Although I am always very optimistic, I am slightly worried that some elements in Sudan will try to deny the people of southern Sudan to exercise this fundamental right,” Kiir said. Many in the south are deeply distrustful and would challenge Kiir’s expression of slight worry. Some saw the meeting as the first steps in “A Near Unilateral Declaration of Independence.” (South Sudan Nation, Sudan Tribune and other sources)

Darfur: Humanitarian Access

SAAF Note: In personal correspondence the program director of one humanitarian effort in Darfur observes that indigenous Sudanese humanitarian efforts and those international efforts which maintain a low profile experience much less interference than highly visible efforts. In our previous update we noted the methods whereby humanitarian access is restricted. Prof. Eric Reeves explains the reason.

“The long, brutal war of attrition directed at humanitarian aid efforts in Darfur is again accelerating, as Khartoum seeks to effect a permanently destructive status quo prior to further UNAMID deployment. These immensely destructive efforts are also meant to deter the ICC from issuing an arrest warrant for National Islamic Front regime head Omar al-Bashir.”

Let one example suffice. For more than four months the Khartoum regime refused to allow entry to 5,000 metric tons of sugar bound for Darfur. What is the role of sugar in food aid to Darfur? Sugar is part of a primary food tool called “premix” to manage malnutrition in children under 5. What goes into this “premix”? Corn-soya blend, dried skimmed milk…and sugar. This delay in releasing a large quantity of a key ingredient in sustaining the lives of young children was a direct assault on their ability to live—it represents another in a long and continuous history of genocidal actions by the NIF regime, going back to well before the outbreak of organized rebellion in Darfur in early 2003.

More simply, precluding humanitarian access is the natural progression of a strategy of genocide against targeted civilians once they have been put in a situation in which they have no options for survival except humanitarian intervention. (ST, 10/28/08)

South Sudan establishes Bureau for civilian disarmament

The Government of Southern Sudan established a bureau under the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the sole purposes of developing and coordinating a policy for small arms control among the civil population in the semi-autonomous region. The Bureau will develop comprehensive strategies and plans to address community insecurity and the misuse of small arms. Donors and UN agencies have promised to financially and technically support the Bureau. (ST 11/01/08)UN Representative Arrested near Merowe Dam, Sudan

Dam authorities closed the gates of the newly constructed Merowe Dam in Northern Sudan in late October causing a major humanitarian disaster in the affected area. Thousands of people who had resisted displacement to sites in the desert were flooded out of their homes, without access to shelter, sufficient food or medical supplies.

Uta Simon, a representative of the UN’s Khartoum Monitoring Mission, and two traveling with her, were arrested October 30th while they were visiting the area. The Sudanese authorities have closed off the affected area to aid agencies, journalists and apparently the UN. The arrest of Uta Simon and her colleagues is a scandalous attempt to prevent any relief and support from reaching the people whose tribal lands are directly affected by the Merowe Dam. (http://internationalrivers.org/en/africa/merowe-dam-sudan)

Media Absence – Southern Sudan                                                                                An as-yet unpublished report by media experts on the state of the south’s media says that much of the region has no media at all. Other than the government radio there are only a few radio stations. Many people gather around the few televisions in the capital to watch the single government TV channel. Three dailies dominate the press but are often very similar in content: financial pressures and low capacity mean much of the papers’ content is cut and pasted from the internet.

Without mass media even basic information has not filtered far into the rural South. “Many people don’t even know about the CPA. They know maybe that the war has ended. But they don’t know their rights,” a senior civil society member said. (Inter Press Service, 11/1/08)

A Peace Surge for Sudan                                                                                                  November 06, 2008                                                                                                         The message of Sudan activists all over the United States is clear: Don’t try to contain the damage from the war in Darfur–end the war. Don’t just declare that genocide is taking place–end the genocide. Don’t just try to manage the consequences of crisis after crisis in Sudan–end these crises.

In a letter to President-Elect Barack Obama released today, Enough Project Co-Chair John Prendergast, Executive Director John Norris and Save Darfur Coalition President Jerry Fowler spell out a practical
roadmap to end the crisis in Sudan.

Read the report here.

“President-elect Obama has a very important opportunity to bring a new approach to how the United States, and the world, deals with Sudan,” said John Norris, the Executive Director of the Enough Project. “It is
clear that the new president will need a comprehensive approach that looks at all the pieces of the puzzle at the same time, including the situation in Darfur, the role of potential International Criminal Court indictments, and looming struggles over possible southern Sudanese independence. Rigorous diplomacy will need to be backed by well-conceived and consistently escalating pressure on Khartoum and other belligerents to translate peace from rhetoric into reality.” Read the report here.

 

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